Gender and Leadership

Revise and resubmit European Economic Review Societies that set norms restraining opportunistic behavior can escape the tragedy of commons and sustain cooperation. Strikingly though, in most societies women remain under-represented in institutions that enforce social norms. For example, women represent less than 20 percent of judges in the Supreme Court and 12 percent of police force in the United States. This differences are even larger in developing countries. This paper investigates the supply side factors that affect the willingness to act as a ‘hired gun’ or delegated party that sanctions bad behavior.

Focusing effects and time discounting

Revised and resubmitted Review of Economic Studies Working paper August 2019 In many intertemporal decisions, the benefit of an action is concentrated in a few time periods, while the associated cost is dispersed over numerous periods. According to the ``focusing model” by \cite{Koszegi2013}, the more a utility outcome is concentrated in time, the more a decision maker focuses on and, hence, \textit{over}weights it. Such concentration bias provides a micro-foundation for present-biased and future-biased behaviour.